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(VIII) Perception Power and Creativity:

1. Through multiple years of research, the parameter of perception power and creativity is accurately determined. This parameter poses significant impact on the intelligence level of an individual. For the purpose of this study, the perception power and creativity is divided into four categories and 9 grades as follows:

Very Strong

Strong

Slightly Strong

Average

8

7

6

5

4

4’

3

2

1

 

2. Individuals with strong perception power and creativity are naughty and not easy to cope with during childhood. The grow-ups who get engaged in scientific research are more likely to make invention or creation; those who do jobs in management, public relationship or leadership are more likely to think of good ideas which are very helpful to their work. The fact that some individuals with high diploma are usually incapable of dealing with difficulties encountered may attribute to their weak perception power and creativity. This is determined by genes. On the contrary, some individuals without high diploma are very capable in thinking of good ideas immediately when they encounter any trouble. It reveals their strong perception power and creativity.

3. The intelligence parameter of perception power and creativity is primarily determined by the symmetrical and true lines of inter-finger local patterns (I, II, III and IV local patterns).

4. During study, I also find that perception power and creativity and reactivity are supplementary to each other. For example: i) one who has strong creativity is most likely to have large ATD angle, so that his/her speed of thinking is unlikely to be slow; ii) When the ATD angle is small, even if one’s perception power and creativity is not strong, his/her perception power and creativity will be fine so that he/she may usually deliver great ideas.

(IX) Memory:

1. The memory parameter is presently taken from palm patterns, and is classified into 4 categories and 9 grades. See the following table for details:

Very Excellent

Excellent

Good

Average

8

7

6

5

4

4’

3

2

1

2. Up to now, this study is capable to determine whether long-term memory or short-term memory is playing dominant role.

3. Memory is also determined with due consideration to the intelligence (thinking) types. Those who belong to language imagery thinking type are usually able to clearly remember the plots of stories. However, the individuals whose math abstract thinking plays a dominant role usually have stronger ability to remember math formulas and telephone numbers.

4. Presently, the memory parameters determined by this study is not accurate enough, only with an accuracy rate of approximately 80%. The memory parameter is obtained through comprehensive analysis of fingertip ridge counts and palm patterns.

(X)   Calculation of School Scores:

-10

1. From our study, during elementary school, the performance of an individual is mainly determined by his/her efforts and memory. From the second grade of secondary school, the performance of an individual becomes overall representation of his/her intelligence, while the performance at college stage is mainly determined by efforts. Therefore, we take the scores from the second grade of secondary school as the indicator of intelligence level and type. The scores used to represent intelligence level are relative instead of absolute, where they respectively indicate a) 70±10 points: poor or ordinary; b) 80±5 points: average or good; c) 80+5 points: fluctuating between slightly poor and average or good, not stable; d) 90±5 points: excellent; e) 95±5 points: very excellent.

2. The calculated school scores are comparatively accurate, where the proportion of conformity exceeds 90%.

3. The school scores are determined by intelligence level and the dermatoglyphic intelligence indices, and should be obtained through comprehensive calculation.

(XI)   Difference between Intelligence (ZL) and Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

ZL Measurement

IQ Test

1. An indicator to evaluate the potential intelligence of individuals (briefly “ZL”).

1. An indicator to evaluate the intelligence development of individuals (briefly “IQ”).

2. Product or sum of intelligence factors such as memory, speed of thinking, creativity and power of thinking.

2. Ratio of intelligence age to physiological age, i.e. the ratio of knowledge accumulation to age.

3. Completely eliminate the cultural background.

3. With strong culture background.

4. ZL measurement was developed by Chinese scientist Zhai Guiyun in 1992 and has passed the technology result appraisal of provincial level as well as the demonstration of national level.

4. IQ test was developed by French psychologist Alfred Binet in 1905, and became popular worldwide after improvement made by USA and Britain. It is also known as Binet’s IQ test, WAIS IQ test or Raven’s IQ test.

5. Simple, no necessity to answer any question, genetic information of intelligence is taken simply from dermatoglyph. It is a physical measurement of biological features.

5. Complicated, a great deal of questions to answer. The number of questions is at least more than 50 and may get as many as 1409. It is a test through questionnaire.

6. Short time taken, only 20 minutes or so.

6. Long time taken, at least 1-2 hours, and possibly as long as 7 hours.

7. Without limitation on age, applicable to any age between 0 to 100 years old.

7. With limitation on age, generally between 5-16 years old.

8. The accuracy may exceed 95%.

8. With low accuracy, which may only reach 60%

9. Completely repeatable

9. Unrepeatable

10. Virtually potential intelligence, genetic limits, and physiological intelligence.

10. Virtually intelligence development extent and experience/knowledge intelligence.

11. The measurement results are not influenced by external environment.

11. The test results are easily influenced by external environment.

12. The measurement is not influenced by emotion and physical status.

12. The test is easily influenced by emotion and physical status.

13. It is capable of not only testing the intelligence level but also testing the strength and weakness of intelligence, so that strength may be promoted to compensate the weakness, which is essential to any youngster.

13. It is only capable to test the intelligence level and might contain significant error, which may pose negative impact on the psychological development of youngsters. It is for this reason that may experts hold the opinion that IQ test is not recommended.

II.   Study Samples, Sampling and Data Processing of Multivariate Intelligence Measurement through Dermatoglyphic Identification

(I)     Study Samples

1. 1988-1990: First phase study (preliminary study) initiated in Wuhan

At this phase, the study primarily aimed at the students of Chinese Department and Math Department of Wuhan University, respectively representing art and science.

The in-service pilots, ordinary officers and solders in the air force were taken as the secondary study objects.

2. 1990-1992: Second phase study carried in Zhengzhou

Owing to the convenience of close contact with a lot of people as an official responsible for personnel management, I studied the difference of dermatoglyph and intelligence between the personnel of government agencies and institutions.

I also studied the correlation of dermatoglyph and intelligence plus school scores among the students of key and ordinary high schools, secondary schools, elementary schools in Zhengzhou.

During the 5 years of study plus the first phase and second phase, I had studied more than 5,000 individuals, and preliminarily determined the parameters of intelligence and developed the parameter formula for multivariate intelligence measurement through dermatoglyphic identification. From July, 1991 to October, 1992, I formally started providing trial measurement to the society in Zhengzhou. I had sampled, studied and measured more than 1500 individuals.

3. 1993-2001: During the 9 years, I independently raised fund and overcame unimaginable difficulties for studying and measuring more than 25,000 samples in 17 regions including Wuhan, Zhengzhou, Kaifeng, Xinyang, Xinxiang, Xuchang, Xiamen, Zhangzhou, Shijiazhuang, Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhuhai, Dongguan, Changsha, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Beijing. It was in such a way that I obtained the first-hand information of dermatoglyph and intelligence correlation of different ethnic groups in different regions of China. In such way, the multivariate intelligence measurement through dermatoglyphic identification was strictly verified in a wider range throughout China, and the dermatoglyphic intelligence parameters, corrected for better determination.

4. From May, 2001 until now: I have studied and measured more than 10,000 persons in 9 regions including Beijing, Hong Kong, Changchun, Jinzhou, Dalian, Huhhot, Zibo (Shandong), Zhangjiajie (Hunan), and Xinzhou (Shanxi).

In the past 19 years, I have totally sampled over 40,000 individuals, where most of them are elementary, secondary or high school students, small children; and approximately 1/5 of them are adults.

(II)    Sampling Process and Methods

1. From August to the end of December, 2005, I had randomly selected over 20,000 individuals from the more than 40,000 individuals sampled and revisited them through phone calls. Among them, 57 individuals had been invited to Beijing for re-measurement (re-measured group of small children and elementary school students); 448 individuals had been revisited through phone calls (phone-revisited group of small children and elementary school students); I had also prepared the study files of 1,391 individuals who were adults when measured (on-site measured group of adults). The total sample size is composed of 1,936 individuals.

2. Sampling methods:

2.1 The 57 individuals (male: 28; female: 29) among the re-measured group of small children and elementary school students were invited through phone calls to a re-measurement personally. This group had been tested 3-14 years ago. They were currently studying in middle school or college/university, or engaged in a post-graduate program or working somewhere. Their intelligence level and type determined and their specialty selection forecasted years ago were now verified. Additionally, they themselves still held the initial measurement reports, and we had also preserved their files (study and measurement results). When the re-measurement was made, we did not refer to the previous measurement results. Afterwards, the re-measurement results were compared with the initial ones, and evaluated by the individuals tested. The evaluation was classified into five grades: 1) extremely accordant; 2) quite accordant; 3) accordant; 4) slightly accordant; 5) not accordant. Finally, we bond up the files of initial measurement and re-measurement results as one sample.

2.2 The 488 individuals (male: 244; female: 244) in the phone-revisited group of small children and elementary school students were very similar to the above mentioned 57 individuals. However, they failed to come for the re-measurement due to long distance (some were even staying abroad) or because they were very busy with study or work. Therefore, the accordance of measurement results with real situation was evaluated by themselves (parents or grandparents) through phone calls. Consequently, the follow-up phone revisit questionnaire and the initial measurement file constituted a valuable sample (the work was finished by three assistants through telephone in 6 months).

2.3 As for the 1,391 individuals (male: 414, female: 974) in the on-site measured group of adults, because they could immediately confirm their school scores at middle school, their selection of art or science at high school, their scores of college entrance examination, and their specialty selected for graduate or post-graduate programs, they were required to evaluate the accordance of measurement results with their real situation at the testing site. In a sense, the samples of on-site measured adult group are more convincing and valuable to our research.

(III)   Statistic Methods of Data Processing

After being verified, all information was loaded into computers and processed by using SPSS 10.0 software for statistic analysis. The statistic data were processed with assistance of Professor Mei Jian from China National Children Center, and also the Director of the Working Committee for Popular Science Activities under Chinese Psychological Society.

(IV)  Results

1. Reliability of re-measurement. Since the results of multivariate intelligence measurement through dermatoglyphic identification are highly repeatable, the initial measurement and re-measurement show high consistence and stability, as well as high reliability. For the re-measured group of small children and elementary school students, the accordance of the initial intelligence level, intelligence type (math), and genetic value measurements, and the re-measured Pearson correlation are high and statistically significant, respectively 0.798, 0.725, 0.840, and 0.381. See Table 1-1 for details:

Table 1-1    Correlation of Paired Samples (re-measured group of small children and elementary school students)

                                                                               

   Sample Size   Correlation              P Value

Initial- and re-measured ZL Level            57            .798              .000

Initial- and re-measured math                  57            .725              .000

Initial- and re-measured Chinese             57            .                 .    

Initial- and re-measured genetic value             57            .840              .000

Evaluated Accordance of Initial- and re-measurement         57            .381              .003

 

 

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