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2.3.2 The measured intelligence types are highly accordant with the fact. See Table 3-3 and 3-4 for details:

 

Table 3-3 Accordance of Intelligence Type (on-site measured group of adults) (Part I)

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Accordance         Frequency       %     Valid %      Cumulative %

        1                          174           21.2        21.2             21.2

2                          254           31.0        31.0             52.2

3                          222           27.1        27.1             79.3

4                          132           16.1        16.1             95.4

            5                            38            4.6         4.6             100.0

         Total                      820           100.0       100.0

 

 

Table 3-4 Accordance of Intelligence Type (on-site measured group of adults) (Part II)

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Accordance         Frequency       %     Valid %      Cumulative %

        1                           73           12.8        12.8             12.8

2                         139           24.3        24.3             37.1

3                         302           52.9        52.9             90.0

4                          48            8.4         8.4             98.4

            5                            9            1.6         1.6            100.0

         Total                      571           100.0       100.0

2.3.3 The education level predicted through measurement is highly accordant with the actual level. See Table 3-5 and 3-6.

 

Table 3-5    Accordance with Ultimate Education Level (on-site measured group of adults) (Part I)

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Accordance         Frequency       %     Valid %      Cumulative %

         1                         20            2.4         5.3              5.3

2                        143           17.4        37.7             43.0

3                        162           19.8        42.7             85.8

4                          51            6.2        13.5             99.2

            5                           3             .4          .8            100.0

        Total                       379            46.2       100.0

                                       441            53.8

                                       820           100.0

 

 

Table 3-6    Accordance with Ultimate Education Level (on-site measured group of adults) (Part II)

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Accordance         Frequency       %     Valid %      Cumulative %

        1                            22            3.9         6.9              6.9

2                           134           23.5        42.0           48.9

3                           105           18.4        32.9            81.8

4                             47            8.2        14.7             96.6

            5                             11            1.9         3.4            100.0

         Total                         319            55.9       100.0

                                          252            44.1

                                           571           100.0

 

2.3.4 For the accordance of intelligence level with the real situation of an individual, the Pearson correlation is 0.139, P < 0.01; the correlation for accordance of the measured intelligence type with the real learning situation of an individual is 0.996, P < 0.01; the correlation between the genetic value and intelligence level is 0.108, P < 0.01; the correlation of intelligence level and intelligence type (math) is -0.294, P < 0.01; the correlation of intelligence level and intelligence type (Chinese) is 0.083, P < 0.02; the correlation of measured genetic value and intelligence type is 0.113, P < 0.01.

 

3. The distribution of intelligence level by multivariate intelligence measurement through dermatoglyphic identification

3.1 The distribution of intelligence level complies with the normal distribution curve well recognized by psychologists. See Table 1-5, Table 1-6, Table 2-3 and Table 3-7. It shows that this measurement complies with the actual distribution of intelligence level among individuals.

... ...

III.   Discussion

1. The study on multivariate intelligence measurement through dermatoglyphic identification makes physiological and physical measurement of human intelligence possible. It is most likely an easily workable and accurate intelligence measurement before people can make precise determination of human intelligence from gene level. It is possible to become the latest generation of intelligence measurement methods in succession to “Assessment Scale”.

2. This study verifies that intelligence is virtually a physiological existence, which is determined by genes. Intelligence means the cleverness of individuals, the potential capability for study, as well as the potential ability for people to recognize, adapt to and change the objective external environment. It is composed of intelligence factors such as the power of thinking, memory, reactivity, perception and creativity. Genetic inheritance is the internal cause for intelligence, which is a decisive factor; growth circumstance is the external cause, which is an important condition for development of potential intelligence; the factors interact with each other and are equally important. However, genetic inheritance is the base and prerequisite and is decisive to the intelligence of an individual.

Intelligence + Knowledge Wisdom; Wisdom + Efforts + Opportunity = success.

3. Multivariate intelligence measurement through dermatoglyphic identification is a way to take genetic intelligence information from human fingerprints and palm patterns, and apply the information in the dermatoglyphic intelligence formula, so as to accurately calculate the multivariate intelligence potential such as intelligence level, intelligence, type, gifted art/sport talent, strength of personality, and study style. In such a way, we may i) make appropriate recommendations helpful to children’s selection of arts or sports; ii) assist/guide elementary and secondary school students in making full use of their learning strength; iii) help high school students appropriately select specialties of arts or science; iv) lead college students or post-graduates to the fields that they may suit best. Above all, this study will play an instructive role and be valuable in practice.

4. Multivariate intelligence measurement through dermatoglyphic identification is capable to accurately identify the intelligence difference and personality difference of individuals. Therefore it may be used by schools or institutions in making appropriate selection of different talents.

5. The academic significance of study on multivariate intelligence measurement through dermatoglyphic identification is as follows:  

5.1 This study supports Pavlov's theory of three nerve types and is capable to measure it.

5.2 This study supports the “fluid intelligence” and “crystallized intelligence” theories of Cattell and Horn. The intelligence level measured by this study is virtually the “fluid intelligence” as they are both physiological intelligence.

5.3 This study supports the “reaction range” theory of Scarr and Carter Saltzman and facilitates the measurement of reaction range of individual’s intelligence. The intelligence level stated in this measurement may be considered as a reaction range, with the range of “±5”.

5.4 This study makes it partially possible to make physiological measurement of the 7 primary mental abilities specified by Thurstone and the 8 different forms of intelligence found out by Gardner. We now are able to accurately measure the abilities respectively for language imagery thinking, math abstract thinking, sports, music, arts, reactivity (speed of perception), introspection, and creativity, etc.

5.5 It is important to mention that this study supports the famous two-factor theory of intelligence developed by the great British psychologist Charles Edward Spearman. This study deems his theory, among many theories of intelligence, a perfect system that scientifically and reasonably reveals the essence and internal structure of human intelligence. This study is capable to make preliminarily accurate measurement of the “G” and “S” factors. The G factor is the intelligence level measured by this study; the S factor is the stronger potential measured through this study, which varies with different individuals, e.g. the ability for language, math, music, sports, inter-person communication, leadership, eloquence, wealth management, etc.

6. This study has established a preliminary model for genetic analysis of intelligence, which may accurately determine whether twins are monozygotic or dizygotic. If the intelligence of a child is measured, we may roughly calculate the intelligence of his/her parents, and vice versa. This shows that the issue of intelligence inheritance and measure, the focus of the 21st century, has possibly been solved by us. Therefore, it is a significant way to improve the quality of “sperm bank” and “ovum bank” worldwide, so as to really promote good prenatal and postnatal care and enhance the quality of population.

7. As we know, in 1904, Binet and Simon started to prepare the Binet Scale as a mission assigned by the French Minister of Public Instruction, which was concerned with the problem of retardation among public school children in Paris. They were required to find out a method for checking whether the retardation was due to insufficient inherent intelligence or bad habit formed during growth. Although Binet and Simon initiated IQ test by inventing the test method through Binet - Simon Scale, yet in a strict sense, they did not actually accomplish the mission designated by the French Ministry. However, today, more than a hundred years later, this study finally completes the mission primarily designated to Binet and Simon.

8. As the history of intelligence test research in the world shows, people usually name an intelligence test method after the surname of the inventor plus the name of his/her country, e.g. Binet's IQ test (France), WAIS IQ test (USA), and Raven’s IQ test (Britain). Similarly, this study may be called “Zhai’s Intelligence Test” (China).

9. If this study is incorporated into the automatic identification technology of palm patterns and fingerprints, we will possibly develop an automatic instrument for multivariate intelligence measurement through dermatoglyphic identification, which may realize industrialized production, provide better services to the world, and accrue significant economic profit.

10. If cooperation is established between this study and any gene research institution, it is possible to determine the genes related to intelligence in a short period, e.g. genes related to perception power, creativity, match, music, sports, etc. In that case, it will become academically and scientifically valuable.

 

 

 

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